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Multiple IES-funded projects have demonstrated that students from low-income backgrounds significantly benefitted from receiving the Pre-K Mathematics intervention. Each study revealed that children exposed to Pre-K Mathematics had significantly higher main scores than students in classrooms with business-as-usual math curricula. In fact, the achievement gap was narrowed at the end of pre-K and this finding persisted at the end of kindergarten! Participating students scored at the national average on mathematics achievement tests at the end of kindergarten.
Pre—K Mathematics Has Been Found to be Effective in 5 Gold Standard Randomized Controlled Trials and Meets the What Works Clearinghouse Evidence Standards Without Reservations:
Validation of the Effectiveness of an Innovative Early Mathematics Intervention for High-Need Students, Thomas, J., Cook, T. D., Klein, A., Starkey, P., & DeFlorio, L. (2018). The sequential scale-up of an evidence-based intervention: A case study. Evaluation review, 42(3), 318-357.
A Longitudinal Study of the Effects of a Pre-Kindergarten Mathematics Curriculum on Low-Income Children’s Mathematical Knowledge, Klein A., Starkey, P., Clements, D., Sarama, J., & Iyer, R. (2008). Effects of a pre-kindergarten mathematics intervention: A randomized experiment. Journal of Research on Educational
Pre—K Mathematics Has Been Found to be Effective at Scale:
Scaling Up the Implementation of a Pre-Kindergarten Mathematics Curriculum in Public Preschool Programs, Starkey, P., Klein, A., & DeFlorio, L., (2014). Promoting Math Readiness through a Sustainable Mathematics Intervention. In Bierman, K.L. & Doivin, M. (Eds.) Promoting school readiness and early learning: the implications of developmental research for practice. New York: Guilford.
Closing the SES Related Gap in Young Children’s Mathematical Knowledge
Pre—K Mathematics Has Been Found to be Effective when Implemented as part of a Comprehensive Curriculum:
A Randomized Study of the Efficacy of a Two-Year Mathematics Intervention for At-Risk Pre-Kindergarten and Kindergarten Students, Lonigan, C.J., Phillips, B.M., Clancy, J.L., Landry, S.H., Swank, P.R., Assel, M., Taylor, H.B., Klein, A., Starkey, P., Domitrovich, C.E., Eisenberg, N., de Villers, j., de Villers, P., Barnes, M.A., and the School Readiness Consortium (2015). Impacts of a comprehensive school readiness curriculum for preschool children at risk for educational difficulties. Child Development, 86 (6), 1773-1793.
A Tier 2 Version of Pre—K Mathematics Has Been Found to be Effective when Implemented Alone and with an Attention Intervention:
A Randomized Trial of a Tutor-Based Mathematics and Attention Intervention for Low-Performing Pre-Schoolers at Risk for Mathematical Difficulties in School, Barnes, M.A., Klein, A., Swank, P., Starkey, P., McCandliss, B., Flynn, K., & Roberts, G. (2016). Effects of tutorial interventions in mathematics and attention for low-performing preschool children. Journal of Research on Educational Effectiveness, 4, 577-606.